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超爆蘋果橘子經濟學

By ,,,

Publisher: 時報文化出版企業股份有限公司

4.1
(685)

Language:繁體中文 | Number of Pages: 295 | Format: Paperback | In other languages: (other languages) English , Spanish , Dutch , French , Portuguese , Italian

Isbn-10: 9571351415 | Isbn-13: 9789571351414 | Publish date:  | Edition 1

Translator: 李芳齡

Category: Business & Economics , Non-fiction , Social Science

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Book Description
改變世界的魔力藏在怪誕思考裡
什麼都怪異,什麼都不意外!

阿基米德曾發豪語:「只要給我一個支點,就能把地球舉起來!」

  現在,「全美國最有趣腦袋」的李維特,要給大家這個支點,讓所有人都能成為「蘋果橘子經濟學家」,打破既有的思考框架與常規,找出隱藏在問題與現象背後不可思議的瘋狂誘因,掌握改變世界的魔力。

你會發現:最難解的問題,答案往往異常簡單!

來來來,現在先小試你的「蘋果橘子指數」:

對芝加哥的流鶯而言,一週中的哪一天最賺錢?
A. 星期六
B. 星期一
C. 星期三
D. 星期五

死於心臟疾病人數的減少中,有一半歸功於:
A. 不昂貴的藥物
B. 血管修復術
C. 心臟移植
D. 冠狀動脈支架

下列何者對阻止溫室效應最具成效?
A. 鼓勵減少消費的大眾意識宣導
B. 碳排放量的總限量與交易制度
C. 火山爆發
D. 大量植樹

(更多經典測驗題與解答在www.readingtimes.com.tw)

爭議到爆,發燒到爆,各界同聲叫怪!各界同聲叫買!
《華爾街日報》《紐約時報》《華盛頓郵報》《娛樂週刊》《經濟學人》……爭論不斷

  前作《蘋果橘子經濟學》(Freakonomics),名列《紐約時報》暢銷書排行榜在全球創造大轟動,自二○○五年出版至今,已在全球以三十五種語言銷售超過四百萬冊,並且改變了我們看待此世界的方式。現在,李維特和杜伯納再度推出新作《超爆蘋果橘子經濟學》,讀者將在此續集中看到更怪誕、更有趣、更令人驚奇的探討議題。

  兩位作者歷時四年寫就的這本新作,引領我們深入思考一些令人費解、意想不到的問題:酒醉駕車比較危險,還是酒醉走路比較危險?化學療法的成效這麼差,為何仍然經常被採用?變性手術能幫助你提高薪資嗎?

■引爆火山爆發真有可能拯救地球暖化?
■流鶯就像百貨公司裡的聖誕老人!
■醫生連洗手這樣簡單的事情都做不好?
■兒童汽車安全座椅到底能幫父母多大的忙?
■捕捉恐怖分子最佳的方法和買保險有關!
■颶風、心臟病發作、公路死亡事故,其實存在有共通之處!
■吃袋鼠肉有助拯救地球!
■皮條客比房地產經紀人還能創造更高的價值?

  不論是大膽探究全球氣候暖化的解方,抑或解釋妓女口交價格大幅下跌的原因,李維特和杜伯納結合聰慧思考與說故事的能力,讓人看得直呼:super freak!

作者簡介

史帝文.李維特
(Steven D. Levitt)

  芝加哥大學經濟系教授。年僅42歲的李維特在2003年獲頒「約翰.貝茲.克拉克獎」,許多贏得此殊榮的經濟學家後來也贏得諾貝爾經濟學獎。李維特在2006年被《時代》雜誌評選為「對全球最具影響力的百大人物」,《經濟學人》在十年前評選他為經濟學界的八位明日之星。

  李維特的研究與論述不僅使艱澀深奧的經濟學變得更平易近人、饒富趣味,也啟發人們更深入思考社會與日常生活中,許多看似怪誕現象背後的道理與深義,並進而省思政策與措施的成效和影響性。他與杜伯納和著的前一本作品《蘋果橘子經濟學》,至今已在全球以35種語言銷售,超過400萬冊。

史帝芬.杜伯納(Stephen J. Dubner)

  前《紐約時報雜誌》作家與編輯,為《紐約時報》、《紐約客》等知名報章雜誌撰文,出版有多本著作。

譯者簡介

李芳齡


  專事譯作,譯著包括《啟動革命》、《哈佛商業評論精選:企業策略》、《第五項修練III:變革之舞》、《杜拉克——管理的使命、責任、實務》、《創新者的解答》、《創新者的修練》、《創新者的成長指南》、《成功不墜——最適者再生》、《當債務吞噬國家》、《境外共和國》、《新帝國遊戲》、《超級資本主義》、《開放式經營》、《豐田模式》系列、《尖子品牌》、《逆轉力》等六十餘部。
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  • 4

    但有時覺得芝加哥經濟學派,對於錢是唯一誘因這件事,太過於如宗教般執著,反而失了真相。

    但教人用不同角度看事情,很不錯,特別是現在媒體宣導往往不是事實真相,只是假藉科學行銷,兒童汽車座椅那段很有趣,悄悄透露廠商藉由安全之名,與政府合作強迫行銷的真相

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  • 4

    非常有趣的書,作者將兩件異想不到的事情兜在一起, 用經濟學的角度來解釋討論某些事件如自殺炸彈客,謀殺案等複雜的行為與社會現象. 本書讓我知道自己受到多少傳統觀念的束縛.

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  • 4

    器官交易的部分可以看the red market 人體交易那本書,不是他想的那麼乾淨簡單、拿掉顆腎臟後也不是什麼身體負擔或影響都沒有。。。

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  • 3

    Pazza economia

    Divertente, ironico, dissacrante. Il penultimo capitolo, la geo ingegneria, è forse un po' noioso (oppure ho preteso troppo dal mio poor English affrontandolo in lingua originale).
    Alcuni punti di vista decisamente anticonvenzionali lasciano sconcertati ma, temo, è tutto vero.
    I sedil ...continue

    Divertente, ironico, dissacrante. Il penultimo capitolo, la geo ingegneria, è forse un po' noioso (oppure ho preteso troppo dal mio poor English affrontandolo in lingua originale).
    Alcuni punti di vista decisamente anticonvenzionali lasciano sconcertati ma, temo, è tutto vero.
    I sedili per proteggere i bimbi non funzionano, l'inquinamento genera il calore ma al contempo ci protegge, i pazienti muoiono perché i medici non si lavano le mani,..

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  • 0

    Review Essay of Superfreakonomics

    The Driving Force Behind Levitt and Dubner’s Book “Superfreakonomics,”


    “Superfreakonomics” is a collection of studies that were performed by various economists and analyzed by the authors. These studies seek to outline unexpected ways in which the individual or society as a whole res ...continue

    The Driving Force Behind Levitt and Dubner’s Book “Superfreakonomics,”

    “Superfreakonomics” is a collection of studies that were performed by various economists and analyzed by the authors. These studies seek to outline unexpected ways in which the individual or society as a whole responds to outside influences. The book also attempts to break down the reasons behind why people make the choices they do given certain circumstances, and how some data sets show those choices to be misinformed. More than that, as economists, Levitt and Dubner better inform you why specific social interactions occur and the motivation behind them. They force you to reconsider how you view the world and question why people behave the way they do.

    At the outset, the authors disclaim that “many of [their] findings may not be useful, or even conclusive” (Levitt and Dubner, 2009). While this holds true for many of the extremely enjoyable excerpts within the book, this is beside the point. What this book really tries to achieve is to provoke thought and create interest in using the study of economics to provide insight into how social interactions are incentivized and how what you think to be true may actually be false based on unconsidered data. The authors also want you to really think about human nature and the expected behavior of people. Too often, it is easy for us to take information at face value and simply decide how we feel about a particular situation based on our own background and personal knowledge. Although we can often be right in doing this, many times the correct or simplest answer is not the most obvious one. It is in this complacency that we fail to see the world through the eyes of an economist, someone who uses data to show the hidden meaning in how the world works.
    Whether you agree with the authors’ conclusions and analysis or not, some of their findings are eye-opening and at times mind-blowing. Examples such as how “a street prostitute is like a department-store Santa,” or why a group of Queens, New York residents stood idly by while a rape occurred right in front of their eyes introduce you to a reality that may surprise you (Levitt and Dubner, 2009). These concepts are laid out in a well-reasoned fashion, and are certainly thought-provoking, while simultaneously challenging the norms with which you would have considered the situations presented.

    Throughout the body of work of “Superfreakonomics,” some of the stories feel on point and others do not. While the authors attempt to let the reader know that their theories are not the end of the story, some of the conclusions drawn feel forced and are often controversial at best, and misleading at worst. That does not make the book any less worthy of your time, but that fact must be noted and taken with a grain of salt before committing to what it is they are trying to accomplish with the book. If you dedicate yourself to reading this book with an open mind, the stories will be more insightful and have more of an impact. That being said, just because you are open to what Levitt and Dubner propose does not mean you have to agree with them. Even in disagreeing, the reasoning they use to make their points is powerful enough to allow you to draw some of the same conclusions they arrived at and may drive you to do your own research regarding any questions the authors left unanswered.

    In reading this book, what really makes it worthwhile is the change that can occur in your own thought processes. “Superfreakonomics” truly challenges and alters your perception of the world and makes you see things in a different light. It amplifies your understanding of the issues discussed in the book in ways that other similar books do not. This book is highly recommended for anyone that believes there can be more than one side to every story.

    References
    Levitt, S. D., & Dubner, S. J. (2009). Superfreakonomics. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers.

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  • 2

    Levitt, Steven D. and Stephen J. Dubner (2009). Superfreakonomics: Global Cooling, Patriotic Prostitutes and Why Suicide Bombers Should Buy Life Insurance. London: Allen Lane. 2009. ISBN 9780713999914. Pagine 256. 14.99 £


    Moltissimi anni fa, pochi giorni prima della morte del Grande Timoni ...continue

    Levitt, Steven D. and Stephen J. Dubner (2009). Superfreakonomics: Global Cooling, Patriotic Prostitutes and Why Suicide Bombers Should Buy Life Insurance. London: Allen Lane. 2009. ISBN 9780713999914. Pagine 256. 14.99 £

    Moltissimi anni fa, pochi giorni prima della morte del Grande Timoniere (quindi doveva essere la fine d’agosto o l’inizio di settembre del 1976), in viaggio alla volta della Sardegna con gli zii, ci fermammo a mangiare da quello che all’epoca era il più reputato ristorante di Castiglion della Pescaia. Mi pare si chiamasse Romano (non esiste più da tempo). Ci servì di secondo dei gamberoni, o delle mazzancolle, spettacolari, fritti con una spolverata di pan grattato. Chiedemmo il bis. Il secondo piatto faceva schifo, tanto che accusammo Romano di aver riutilizzato lo stesso olio.

    I sequel, nei libri ancor più che nei film e nei ristoranti, sono in genere peggiori dell’originale. Penso che la ragione vada divisa, ma non in parti eguali, tra autore e lettore. Al lettore manca l’effetto sorpresa: sa già quello che si deve aspettare, i punti di forza del modo di scrivere e di argomentare dell’autore li dà per scontati, i punti deboli e le cadute di stile li trova ormai, più che irritanti, insopportabili. Ma le responsabilità principali le ha in genere l’autore che, spinto dal successo del libro precedente, dai diritti che gli intasano il conto bancario e dalle pressioni della casa editrice, ti propina more of the same. E questo more of the same è, magari, qualche cosa che (saggiamente) l’editor aveva espunto dal primo volume, o una compilation frettolosa di articoli pubblicati sui quotidiani sull’onda del successo.

    L’unico capitolo che meriti di essere letto, secondo me, è il quinto, “What do Al Gore and Mount Pinatubo have in common?”

    * * *

    Pochissime citazioni:

    And yes, just as your grandmother always told you, practice does make perfect. But not just willy-nilly practice. Mastery arrives through what Ericsson calls “deliberate practice.” This entails more than simply playing a C-minor scale a hundred times or hitting tennis serves until your shoulder pops out of its pocket. Deliberate practice has three key components: setting specific goals; obtaining intermediate feedback; and concentrating as much on technique as on outcome [p. 61]

    To build this fast, flexible, muscular, encyclopaedic system, Feied and Smith turned to their old crush:object-oriented programming. They set to work using a new architecture that they called “data-centric” and “data-atomic.” Their system would deconstruct each piece of data from every department and store it in a way that allowed it to interact with any other piece of data, or any other 1 billion pieces. [p. 72]

    […] “Are people really altruistic?” is the wrong kind of question to ask. People aren’t “good” or “bad”. People are people, and they respond to incentives. [p. 125]

    To solve this puzzle, Semmelweis became a data detective. [p. 135]

    […] “McNamara is selling safety but Chevrolet is selling cars.” [p. 158]

    Indeed, if we hadn’t played with Mother Nature by using ammonium nitrate to raise our crop yields, many readers of this book wouldn’t exist today. (Or they would at least be too busy to read, spending all day scrounging for roots and berries.) [p. 160]

    Because cows – as well as sheep and other cud-chewing animals called ruminants –are wicked pollutants. Their exhalation and flatulence and belching and manure emit methane, which by one common measure is twenty-times more potent as a greenhouse gas than the carbon dioxide released by cars (and, by the way, humans). The world’s ruminants are responsible for about 50 percent more greenhouse gas than the entire transportation system. [p. 167: poco sotto spiega perché il movimento "locavore" peggiora il problema, dal momento che la fase di produzione pesa per l'80% delle emissioni e i piccoli produttori sono molto più inefficienti dei grandi, mentre la fase di trasporto pesa soltanto per l'11%; però, ci spiega Mary Roach in Gulp, gli erbivori non ruttano]

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  • 5

    「在應用經濟學的研究中,即便是使用完全相同的資料,不同分析角度與統計方法所得結果也不會完全相同!重點應該是從中釐清不同方法及結果的推論限制,而非一心一意小要證明『誰犯了錯』,秉持這種健康的心態,才能創造有意義的學術對話。」 -導讀,p.20

    『人們會對誘因有所反應』。
     人們對誘因會有反應,儘管未必以可預期或明顯的方式反應。
     因此,宇宙中最強力的定律之一是『始料不及後果定律』(the law of unintended consequences)」 -p.30

    「在檢視男女薪資差距時,我們還可以從另一個角度思考。或許, ...continue

    「在應用經濟學的研究中,即便是使用完全相同的資料,不同分析角度與統計方法所得結果也不會完全相同!重點應該是從中釐清不同方法及結果的推論限制,而非一心一意小要證明『誰犯了錯』,秉持這種健康的心態,才能創造有意義的學術對話。」 -導讀,p.20

    『人們會對誘因有所反應』。
     人們對誘因會有反應,儘管未必以可預期或明顯的方式反應。
     因此,宇宙中最強力的定律之一是『始料不及後果定律』(the law of unintended consequences)」 -p.30

    「在檢視男女薪資差距時,我們還可以從另一個角度思考。或許,我們不必把女性薪資較低的現象解釋為女性的失敗,而是把它視為一種跡象,顯示『較高薪資』這項誘因對女性的意義與重要性,不若它對男性的意義與重要性。我們可不可以說,金錢是男性的弱點,就猶如小孩是女性的弱點呢?」 -p.88

    「若人類天生傾向利他的話,社會就應該能夠仰賴利他行為來解決問題,哪怕是最傷腦筋的問題。

     當你像經濟學家李斯特這樣地檢視真實世界時,你會發現,許多看似利他的行為,似乎不是真的那麼利他
     大多數的施予,其實是經濟學家所謂的『非純粹利他』(impure altruism),或『榮耀性利他』(warm-glow altruism);你施予他人,並非只是因為你想幫助他們,也因為這樣的行為使你看起來有善心,或使你有好的感覺,或減少你的不安感覺。

     人無善惡之別,人就是人,他們對誘因做出反應,若你能找到正確的手段,幾乎都能操縱他們,不論善良或邪惡的操縱。」 -p.165,180

    「『始料不及後果定律』(the law of unintended consequences)是宇宙中最強力的定律之一。舉例而言,政府經常立法意圖保護最脆弱而需要被照顧者,但這些立法卻適得其反地傷害到他們。」 -p.200

    「當人們被迫支付其行動的所有成本時,就沒什麼誘因可去改變他們的行為。
     今天,人們被要求改變行為,卻不是為了自身的私利,而是要他們出於無私,這可能使全球暖化看起來像個無望解決的問題,除非人們願意把私人利益擺一邊,不計個人代價地做正確的事。」 -p.242

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  • 4

    Quite interesting, especially in the epilogue where monkeys were shown to exhibit all kinds of human behaviours after being taught the way of money. But overall the chapters have no logical connections, the subject matters are only lightly touched upon, and the book feels rather inconsequential ...continue

    Quite interesting, especially in the epilogue where monkeys were shown to exhibit all kinds of human behaviours after being taught the way of money. But overall the chapters have no logical connections, the subject matters are only lightly touched upon, and the book feels rather inconsequential on the whole.

    said on 

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