Human rights refers to the concept of human beings as having universal rights, or status, regardless of legal jurisdiction, and likewise other localising factors, such as ethnicity and nationality. For many, the concept of "human rights" is based in ...
religious principles. However, because a formal concept of human rights has not been universally accepted, the term has some degree of variance between its use in different local jurisdictions - difference in both meaningful substance as well as in protocols for and styles of application. Ultimately the most general meaning of the term is one which can only apply universally, and hence the term "human rights" is often itself an appeal to such transcended principles, without basing such on existing legal concepts. The term "humanism" refers to the developing doctrine of such universally applicable values, and it is on the basic concept that human beings have innate rights, that more specific local legal concepts are often based. Within particular societies, "human rights" refers to standards of behaviour as accepted within their respective legal systems regarding: the well being of individuals, the freedom and autonomy of individuals, and the representation of the human interest in government. These rights commonly include the right to life, the right to an adequate standard of living, the prohibition of genocide, freedom from torture and other mistreatment, freedom of expression, freedom of movement, the right to self-determination, the right to education, and the right to participation in cultural and political life. These norms are based on the legal and political traditions of United Nations member states and are incorporated into international human rights instruments. This new book brings together the latest book literature centred on this crucial topic.