(2) The commerce and trade deteriorated the social inequality around the South China. However, the foreign trade was monopolized by the Qing governors-public corporations and the foreign merchants. Piracy led to two economic consequence, redistributed and diffused the great benefits to at least some of the local fishermen, sailors, small entrepreneurs, villagers and so on, who had been excluded from the world economy.
(3)Violence, the same-sex relations, especially guy and brotherhood, and the culture of the poor, were common in the piracy world. Moreover, the piracy groups were more free and more equal than the landed. The Western pirate ship was "democratic in an undemocratic age." However, the Chinese pirate ship was more authoritarian than that.
(4) In fact, the piracy dominated the South China sea from 1520 to 1810. Then the Eva of nation-state navy was coming. The author vocal for the seafarer history from the bottom up....Continua