Absence of control over the mind is the certain path of drift in samsara, because without control over the mind the work of tranquility (samatha) and insight (vipassana) cannot be undertaken.
1. The yogi mindfully exhales an out-breath, and minfully inhales and in-breath
2. When a long breath is exhaled, he knows that he exhales a long out-breath.
3. While exhaling, he tries to experience the entire out-brath - its beginning, middle, and end.
4. The attempt has to be made to allay and calm down the out-breaths and inbreaths until they become extremely gentle.
According to commentary, there are three main stages of effort, namely: