The book gathers some papers concerning the dialogue between neuroscience and psychoanalysis. Following the Introduction written by G. Northoff, concerning the possibility of overcoming the highly impasse generating contraposition between localizationism and holism, G. Vaslamatzis deals with a “Framework for a new dialogue between psychoanalysis and neurosciences”. D. W.Mann tries to show how reflexive processes generate each of three levels of the human system (self, relationships, group). In “Sleep, memory and plasticity” M. P. Walker and R. Stickgold outline a review of the researches following the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep, and specifically of those that began testing the hypothesis that sleep actively participated in the process of memory development. The last two chapters, by Bessel A. Van Der Kolk, and by Allan N. Schore, demonstrate how the psychopathology of traumatic conditions can be a fertile field of dialogue between neuroscience and psychoanalysis.