Sapiens
by Yuval Noah Harari
(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)(1,418)
What makes us brilliant? What makes us deadly? What makes us Sapiens? Yuval Noah Harari challenges everything we know about being human in the perfect read for these unprecedented times.

Earth is 4.5 billion years old. In just a fraction of that time, one species among countless others has conquered

All Reviews

12 + 168 in other languages
Alessandro CanepaAlessandro Canepa wrote a review
01
(*)(*)(*)(*)( )
Kudra K23Kudra K23 wrote a review
00
(*)(*)(*)(*)( )
YellowloveraulYellowloveraul wrote a review
00
(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)
Spoiler Alert
1.人類在生物鏈的躍遷太快,讓生態系猝不及防。歷史上眾多的災難都是來自於此(19)

2.15萬年前的東非智人已與我們相像,7萬年前開始向外遷移,於是兩種理論a.混種繁衍論:現在人是個人種和智人種的混血,如歐洲人是智人和尼安德塔人混、東亞是因智人和直立人混。b.替代理論:智人取代了所有人種,是所有現代人的祖先。前者容易變成為種族主義的支撐說法。(22)

3.七萬至三萬年前出現認知革命,智人開始創造語言,目的在八卦,也就是團體間各種關係的掌握,了解誰可靠可合作,因此也能擴大部落規模,然而超過150人的團體往往不能順利運作,這時候則利用「討論虛構的事物」作法,運用共同信念來使大群陌生人合作(33-38)

4.考古偏差:時間留下能夠檢視的物品往往不能反映當時的真實樣貌。例如未來歷史學家想要瞭解21世紀台灣年輕人靠的可能是紙本書信,但能反映真實的手機、電子郵件、部落格無法以實體方式留下(p.57)

5.整體而言現今人類所知總和超越遠古人類,但個人層面,遠古採集者是最具備多樣知識和技能的人類。自採集時代以來,智人的腦容量其實是逐漸減少的。到了農業、工業時代,人類開始能依賴他人的技能存活,就算能力低的(p.64)

6.人類馴養植物不如說植物馴化智人,農業革命真正本質:繁衍更多人,確以更糟的狀況活下去(p.100)

7.世界上少數顛撲不破的道理,就是原本的奢侈品往往最後會變成必需品,而且帶來新的義務,接著就是一種依賴。(p.105)

8.史上的場場戰爭和革命,多半不是起因糧食短缺,這種災難根源在於,人類在幾百萬年的演化過程,都是幾十人的小部落,但農業革命後,短短千年出現王國、城市,但時間並不足以讓人類發展出能夠長久大規模合作的本能。

9.金錢的運作就是要把「物質上的現實」轉變為「心理的想像」。信任是所有金錢最基本的原料,宗教信仰重點在自己相信;金錢信仰重點在他人相信。(204-210)

10.一神教最高原則是「唯一真神確實存在,那麼他想從我這裡要到什麼」;佛教最高原則是「痛苦確實存在,我該如何逃離」佛教不否認有任何神祇存在,然而神祇對於「苦由欲起」這條定律並無能為力;如果能無欲無求任何神祇都無法讓人感到痛苦,相對的人有了慾望,任何神祇也無法拯救他脫離痛苦(255)

11.宗教以神祇為中心;意識形態以自然律為中心。(258)

12.一階混沌系統:不會因預測而改變
二階混沌系統:會受到預測的影響而改變

13.科學不會假裝自己知道未來一定會出現什麼;只有宗教和意識形態會聲稱自己知道這些答案

14.英國皇家學會1976年派遣遠征隊到大洋洲是為了透過觀察金星凌日計算太陽與地球距離,當時船長為庫克,科學家有格林、班克斯等
Kin YipKin Yip wrote a review
02
(*)(*)(*)(*)(*)
Spoiler Alert
I feel that I have learnt a lot of from this book, both in knowledge (such as the genus of Homo at the beginning of the book) and a few ideas which seem so obvious now but somehow I haven’t realized before. ( Well, the principle of equivlance has been “obvious” enough ! ) Though I might have some vague and confusing ideas about these biological / archaeological / anthropological knowledge, I certainly haven’t been able to remember their names and (exact) definitions. Let me write down a few simple things before I forget:

p.4 (lines 16-18): "Animals are said to belong to the same species if they tend to mate with each other, giving birth to fertile offspring."

p.6: Homo neanderthalensis were in Europe and western Asia, Homo erectus in East Asia and Homo soloensis in Java, Indonesia.

p.14: Around 70000 years ago, Homo sapiens spread from East Africa to Asia and all over the world. Other Homo species (humans) have vanished and there are two theories of explanation, “Interbreeding Theory” (eg. Sapiens & Neanderthals in Europe / Sapiens & Erectus in East Asia) and “Replacement Theory”. The latter “has been the common wisdom in the field as “it had firmer archaeological backing” and “more politically correct” (last paragraph on p.15) :-) Nevertheless, there started to have some evidence of “interbreeding” from DNA analyses (p.16) since 2010 though the extent seems small (eg. 1-4% or 6%).

I certainly have felt very rewarding to learn all the details. But towards the end, the discussions, theories and the author’s extrapolations have become more and more speculative. One realizes that they’re probably no longer any “standard model” of history but the opinions of the author’s.

One message in this book has come across as a bit of a surprise, even though it’s obvious as an afterthought. The author told or reminded us that not just various religions, most things in our lives are actually only our imagined ideas such as liberalism, limited liability companies or countries. Sapiens have been able to dominate the world mainly due to this kind of superior cognitive ability to take over the world from other human species and other animals which may be bigger in size or faster in speed etc. The author calls it “The Cognitive Revolution”. Though we all know that human rights are not apples that one may grasp (to eat), when I was told that ideas such as human rights or liberalism are just (like) different kinds of religions, I still feel a bit shocked or lost. It’s probably like one’s religion has been attacked. Nevertheless, when one reflects on this, all liberty, equality etc. are merely what we have in our brain/imagination. I probably don’t think in the same way as the author does, as I think believing in one’s individualism or liberty is different from religion that one doesn’t need to believe a God or what miracles have happened. Belief in liberty is more like a demand or upholding a principle rather than a religion. However, I have to admit that after all, it’s probably not less ephemeral or volatile than any religion ?!

I thought I was familiar with the idea of the Scientific Revolution but the author has still managed to tell me something refreshing. The author calls the Scientific Revolution “a revolution of ignorance” (12th line on p.251) as people have discovered that there are/were many things that we don’t/didn’t know yet. This has made us feel that tomorrow will be better than today, due to all kinds of scientific and technological advancement. This then allowed the emergence of growth which has been translated to the explosion of the credit giving. As tomorrow’s pie would be bigger than today’s, the abundance of credit has allowed capitalism to grow even until now. Before the Scientific Revolution (~1500 AD), people didn’t see any way that tomorrow would be improved upon compared to today (as people then thought that they knew everything they needed to know), they didn’t believe that the pie could be bigger tomorrow; and therefore, credit giving to a person was betting on that person being able to grab a piece of the pie from somebody else, instead of a new or bigger pie :-) This has suppressed credit giving. How interesting and insightful !

In Chapter 11, “Imperial Visions”, the author told us that there has been no real justice in history (but, in my words, only victory and defeat). Our thoughts have been heavily shaded by various empires. Since I am most familiar with the history of China, when the author discussed about the situation in China, I feel that it resonates with me. Let me write down two such instances. On p.197 (lines 12-21): “In Chinese political thinking as well as Chinese historical memory, imperial periods were henceforth seen as golden ages of order and justice. In contradiction to the modern Western view that a just world is composed of separate nation states, in China periods of political fragmentation were seen as dark ages of chaos and injustice … Every time an empire collapsed, the dominant political theory goaded the powers that be not to settle for paltry independent principalities, but to attempt reunification. Sooner or later these attempts always succeeded.” On p.201 (lines 23-31): “In China the success of the imperial project was even more thorough. For more than 2,000 years, a welter of ethnic and cultural groups first termed barbarians were successfully integrated into imperial Chinese culture and became Han Chinese … More than 90 per cent of the population of China are seen by themselves and by others as Han.” This just feels so true. All the rulers have made use of patriotism and unity to their advantage and somehow it has worked so thoroughly with the so-called Chinese !

When I first saw the title of the last chapter “The End of Homo Sapiens”, I told myself that the author must be talking about the environmental disaster to this Earth. But this is not the case ! He actually meant that we would create some sort of superhuman (by DNA modification or other technologies) who/which are truly superior to us. But I believe in this case, the author’s guess is not necessarily better than mine and everybody else’s. Hehehe …

While I had some expectation (after I noticed that the author is homosexual), the author didn’t say too much about this topic. Nevertheless, he has written quite a bit about human cruelty towards animals, especially domesticated animals. After reading what he told us on p.91-97 of the 5th chapter, I now almost feel guilty in eating any chicken or pork or beef. I am wondering whether the author is a passionate animal lover. The last sentence of p.379 says: “Perhaps it is also wrong to consider only the happiness of humans.” Overall, the author didn’t have too many good things to say about the 2nd revolution in this book “The Agricultural Revolution” which he has called “History’s Biggest Fraud”, the title of the 5th chapter.

This book was said to be published first in Hebrew in 2011 and was later translated to English (~2014) by the author. I guess during the translation, he has added something. On p.375 (6th line), the author said: “it was written in 2014” and on p.409, at the 17th line: “In 2013 the project received a grant” and then at the 20th line: “the world of 2014 is already…”.

I haven’t noticed any typography etc. The only place that I’ve frowned a little is: “a more easy way”, on the last two lines of p.176. I’d prefer “an easier way”. The editing and proofreading is apparently superb. The quality of paper of this book is probably the best that I have ever remembered for a popular modern book that I’ve read. Though it has made the book considerably heavier, it has allowed colored pictures to be printed throughout the book and it also reflects well on the quality of this book.