In the course of the last two decades, the number of arrests, imprisonment and detention of aliens and citizens of foreign origin has increased significantly in the West. This volume examines this growing trend towards racial criminalization and victimization of migrants. Criminalization, in this sense, is a result of factors which lead the police, judicial authorities, local governments, the media, and the population generally to perceive immigrants responsible for a large number of offences. The problem is explored in a polysemous context which does not concern only immigrants or deviants but also takes into account the many salient characteristics of the political and cultural situation that affects both emigrating and immigrating societies and relations between the two poles. The authors examine and compare the situation in a range of European countries and the US. Comparisons are also made with the treatment of nationals.