Yellowloveraul
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Yellowloveraul

Taiwan

Anobian since Dec 16, 2007

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Memorias de un hombre en pijama
by Paco Roca
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重返文艺复兴
by 謝哲青
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西班牙的靈魂
by 約翰·克勞
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雪球
by 艾莉斯.舒德
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讀懂一本書
by 樊登
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中年打工族
by 小林美希
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印象派,看不懂就沒印象啊啊
by 顧爺
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El mundo es ansí
by Pío Baroja
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En la ardiente oscuridad
by Antonio Buero Vallejo
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Los santos inocentes
by Miguel Delibes
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Los santos inocentes
by Miguel Delibes
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Los santos inocentes
by Miguel Delibes
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This Way看電影
by 蔣竹山
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Buñuel, en el laberinto de las tortugas
by Fermín Solís
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賺錢,更賺自由的FIRE理財族
by Scott Rieckens
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Corazón tan blanco
by Javier Marías
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Pic-Nic. El triciclo. El laberinto
by Fernando Arrabal
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En la ardiente oscuridad
by Antonio Buero Vallejo
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La casa de Bernarda Alba
by Federico Garcia Lorca
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Buñuel, en el laberinto de las tortugas
by Fermín Solís
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Corazón tan blanco
by Javier Marías
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YellowloveraulYellowloveraul added a note
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p13:試圖分析一群特定國家在一段特定時間內的轉型情況...既非通則性亦非細則性...不能提供理論家青睞的概括,也沒辦法提供史學家偏愛的深刻。
p14:我的證據只來自我所研究的有限歷史事件。
p27:獨裁政權的死亡不保證民主的誕生
P30:作為一種政體,民主一直是根據政府權威的來源、政府的目的和組成政府的程序等三方面來界定的。
民主不論是被定義為權威的來源或是目的,都會出現含糊不清、不精確等嚴重問題,因此本書使用的是程序性定義(熊彼得所定義)。在別的政體中,人民可以依據家世、運氣、財富、暴力、選任、學士、任命或考試而成為領袖。民主政治最主要的程序是被統治的人民經由競爭性的選舉來挑選領袖。
p30:古典民主理論依據「人民的意志」(來源)和「公益」(目的)來界定民主;熊彼得在《資本主義、社會主義與民主》書中:「民主的方法是為了達成政治決定所做的一種制度安排,在這種制度安排中,個人藉由激烈的競逐獲取人民手中的選票而得到做決定的權利」
P31在1.理性主義、烏托邦理想主義的民主概念;2.經驗的、描述的、制度和程序的民主概念,後者的概念才能提供分析的準確性和經驗上的參照物。...這種言鳩方向只在理解民主制度的本質、制度的運作方式和他們得以興起或衰落的原因。其中最主要的努力世使民主成為一個常識用詞,而不是「溢美」字眼。
依據熊彼得的傳統,本項研究在評判一個二十世紀的政治體制是否民主所依據的邊準世,看其中最有力量的集體決策是否經由公平、公正和定期的選舉產生,在這種選舉中候選人可以自由地爭奪選票,而且基本上所有的成年人都有投票權。用種方式來界定,民主政治包含兩個面向,一個是競爭、一個是參與。...。這也意謂言論、出版、集會和結社自由等公民自由、政治自由的存在對於政治辯論是不可或缺的,對於選舉活動也是如此
p32:在任何社會中,任和主要的反對政黨在公職人員選戰上遭到不斷的失敗,都必然產生有關這個體制所允許的競爭程度這一問題。
一個民主化國家的第一次選舉只有在下列情況下才被認為合法:有一個或多個合格且客觀公正的國際觀察員在場觀察,而且觀察員承認選舉合乎公正與公平的最低標準。
p33:民主化的過程通常牽涉到非民主政權的終結、民主政權的登台、然後是民主體制的鞏固。
P34:根據選舉來界定民主是一種最起碼的定義。...。由選舉產生的政府也許效率低、腐敗、短視、不負責任或被少數人的特殊利益所操縱,而且不能採納公益所要求的政策。這些品質也許使得這種政府的不足取,但並不能說這種政府不民主。民主是一種公共美德,但不是唯一的美德,只有把民主和政治體制的其他特徵明確地區分開來,民主與其他公共美德或罪惡的關係才能得到理解。

YellowloveraulYellowloveraul added a note
00
p13:試圖分析一群特定國家在一段特定時間內的轉型情況...既非通則性亦非細則性...不能提供理論家青睞的概括,也沒辦法提供史學家偏愛的深刻。
p14:我的證據只來自我所研究的有限歷史事件。
p27:獨裁政權的死亡不保證民主的誕生
P30:作為一種政體,民主一直是根據政府權威的來源、政府的目的和組成政府的程序等三方面來界定的。
民主不論是被定義為權威的來源或是目的,都會出現含糊不清、不精確等嚴重問題,因此本書使用的是程序性定義(熊彼得所定義)。在別的政體中,人民可以依據家世、運氣、財富、暴力、選任、學士、任命或考試而成為領袖。民主政治最主要的程序是被統治的人民經由競爭性的選舉來挑選領袖。
p30:古典民主理論依據「人民的意志」(來源)和「公益」(目的)來界定民主;熊彼得在《資本主義、社會主義與民主》書中:「民主的方法是為了達成政治決定所做的一種制度安排,在這種制度安排中,個人藉由激烈的競逐獲取人民手中的選票而得到做決定的權利」
P31在1.理性主義、烏托邦理想主義的民主概念;2.經驗的、描述的、制度和程序的民主概念,後者的概念才能提供分析的準確性和經驗上的參照物。...這種言鳩方向只在理解民主制度的本質、制度的運作方式和他們得以興起或衰落的原因。其中最主要的努力世使民主成為一個常識用詞,而不是「溢美」字眼。
依據熊彼得的傳統,本項研究在評判一個二十世紀的政治體制是否民主所依據的邊準世,看其中最有力量的集體決策是否經由公平、公正和定期的選舉產生,在這種選舉中候選人可以自由地爭奪選票,而且基本上所有的成年人都有投票權。用種方式來界定,民主政治包含兩個面向,一個是競爭、一個是參與。...。這也意謂言論、出版、集會和結社自由等公民自由、政治自由的存在對於政治辯論是不可或缺的,對於選舉活動也是如此
p32:在任何社會中,任和主要的反對政黨在公職人員選戰上遭到不斷的失敗,都必然產生有關這個體制所允許的競爭程度這一問題。
一個民主化國家的第一次選舉只有在下列情況下才被認為合法:有一個或多個合格且客觀公正的國際觀察員在場觀察,而且觀察員承認選舉合乎公正與公平的最低標準。
p33:民主化的過程通常牽涉到非民主政權的終結、民主政權的登台、然後是民主體制的鞏固。
P34:根據選舉來界定民主是一種最起碼的定義。...。由選舉產生的政府也許效率低、腐敗、短視、不負責任或被少數人的特殊利益所操縱,而且不能採納公益所要求的政策。這些品質也許使得這種政府的不足取,但並不能說這種政府不民主。民主是一種公共美德,但不是唯一的美德,只有把民主和政治體制的其他特徵明確地區分開來,民主與其他公共美德或罪惡的關係才能得到理解。

Yellowloveraul
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書主要說明在1974-1990間民主化的原因、方式及其直接影響
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第三波
by 塞繆爾.杭廷頓
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